What are some common injuries from obstetrical errors?

Obstetrical errors can harm a pregnant woman, her fetus, or her baby. Common injuries for pregnant women include perineal injury (blood loss, skin, tissue and muscle damage, injury to the vaginal mucosa or anal sphincter), pelvic floor injury (muscle and nerve damage, prolapsed organs), postpartum infection, and spinal injuries from epidurals. A fetus may suffer from lack of oxygen, fetal distress, fetal infection, and placental abruption. Newborns may experience trauma from forceps and vacuums, lack of oxygen, untreated infection, improper resuscitation, and kernicterus.